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SWE’s statement on the U.S. Supreme Court Ruling on Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health, which overturns the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. Read More

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Canada Faculty

For 12 years, from 2008 to 2020, the proportion of female Canadian faculty members has been below 20%, except for 2018 (20.8%). The percentage of full-time female-identifying faculty increased from 16.2% to 17.6%. In 2020, the highest proportion of...

Canada Graduate Degrees

Since 2016, the enrollment of female students pursuing a master’s degree in engineering has been increasing over the years. However, in 2020 the amount decreased by almost 9% from the previous year to 26.7%. The proportion of master’s degrees awarded in engineering to females in 2020 was 25.5%, similar...

Canada Undergraduate Degrees

The proportion of female to male students awarded undergraduate engineering degrees in Canada has been steadily increasing. In 2020, the total number of engineering degrees awarded totaled 18,185, with 22.8% of those degrees awarded to women. The total number...

Canada Undergraduate Enrollment

Over the years, Canadian undergraduate enrollment of female students pursuing engineering degrees has steadily increased and has remained above 20% for the fifth year. As undergraduate enrollment increases, there has also been an increase in female-identifying students in engineering undergraduate programs. In 2020...

Global Undergraduate Degrees

From 2000 to 2014, the number of global undergraduate degrees or equivalent (termed “first university degrees” for international statistical comparisons) in engineering awarded has increased, as seen in the National Science Board’s Science and Engineering Indicators (2018).

Global STEM Workforce

Over 120 national science academies and disciplinary associations from across the world participated in the surveys and reported on women’s science participation. The report found that women’s representation remained low from 2015 to 2020 across various countries in the world.

United Kingdom High School Preparation

A report published by EngineeringUK found that while girls are well-represented in General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) courses (part of compulsory schooling), such as physics (50%) and mathematics (50%), the percentages of girls’ representation are lowest among entrants in GCSE computing and engineering courses, where they comprised 21% and 14% of students taking these courses in the 2020-2021 academic year.

United Kingdom Engineering Workforce

In the United Kingdom, women represented 15.2% of workers in core engineering roles across any sector. However, within the engineering sector, their representation is slightly lower (12.5%) compared to their representation (24.4%) outside the engineering sector.

United Kingdom Degree Attainment

While women's degree attainment in engineering and technology in the United Kingdom has increased over the last years, the proportion of engineering and technology degrees awarded to women has remained relatively stagnant at less than 20%.

United Kingdom Intentions to Major in Engineering

In the United Kingdom, a higher percentage of boys of all age groups than girls express positive views of engineering. Similarly, higher proportions of boys across all age groups report they would desire a career in engineering compared to girls.

Australia Degree Attainment

Overall, women’s representation of enrolled and completing engineering degree earners in Australia has increased from 2001 to 2018, across all degree levels, with one exception. While in 2001 women comprised close to 17% of those who completed bachelor’s degrees in engineering, their representation slightly decreased in 2018, where they comprise about 15% of bachelor’s degree holders.

Australia Engineering Workforce

Women are severely underrepresented in the engineering workforce in Australia. Further, a trend in the persisting gender pay gap favoring males is seen in the median starting salaries among graduates from other fields.

Australia High School Preparation

Participation in STEM subjects in Australia among year 12 students has been declining since 2001.

India Faculty

The proportion of post-secondary faculty in India who were women in the 2019-20 academic year varied by the academic position held. Women were more well represented in the lower faculty ranks, such as assistant professors and lecturers in the 2018-19 and again in 2019-20 school years, where they represented about 42.6% and 42.9% of those faculty groups, respectively.

India Graduate Education

The graduate enrollment numbers for women in doctoral engineering and technology disciplines for the 2019-2020 academic year are similar to those found in undergraduate engineering and technology disciplines.

India Undergraduate Education

In the 2020-21 academic year, colleges approved by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) enrolled 658,191 undergraduate students. Of those students, 30.2% were female students. More recently, women represented 29.2% of participants in Bachelor of Engineering and Bachelor of Technology degree programs in the 2019-20 school year. Although mechanical engineering enrolls one of the highest number of undergraduates, women comprise only about 5.9% of these participants. Women are well represented among enrolled undergraduates in architecture (52.5%) and electronics engineering (41.7%) disciplines.

Brazil Undergraduate Education

Overall, the number of students enrolled and graduating from undergraduate programs in Brazil has increased from 2017 to 2019.

Mexico STEM Workforce

Mexico STEM Workforce: Women comprise less than 20% of employed professionals in engineering in Mexico.

Mexico Degree Attainment

Higher Education in Engineering, Manufacturing, and Construction: According to the National Association of Universities and Institutions of Higher Education, the proportion of engineering, manufacturing, and construction students that were women seems to increase at each level of education.

South Africa Higher Education

In South Africa, women’s representation is close to parity across various educational levels in the fields of science, engineering, and technology (SET).

South Africa Engineering Professionals

In South Africa, only 1% of professional certificated engineers are women and 6% of professional engineers are women.

Singapore Research Scientists and Engineers

In the latest National Survey of Research and Development in Singapore (2018) published by the Agency for Science, Technology, and Research in Singapore, the gender representation of research scientists and engineers were provided for the span of ten years (2008-2018). Over this time, women’s representation among research scientists and engineers has slowly increased. Women represented 26% of research scientists and engineers in 2008, and in 2018, their representation among these STEM workers increased to 30%.

Singapore Higher Education

Each year the Ministry of Education in Singapore publishes a report titled Education Statistics Digest, which provides information on gender representation of students admitted, enrolled, and graduated from engineering and engineering sciences across various higher education institutions in Singapore. Across the years of 2016 to 2019, the percentage of female students admitted to engineering and engineering sciences hovers around 22%. Similarly, about 22% of students who graduate from these fields are women in this time period.

Malaysia Engineering Professionals

Data from the last three annual reports created by the Board of Engineers Malaysia show that the majority of registered engineers across various levels tend to concentrate around three specific engineering disciplines: civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering. However, the majority of registered professional engineers and professional engineers with practicing certifications (highest level) are in civil…

Malaysia Higher Education

In 2017, the Department of Statistics in Malaysia published a report titled Statistics on Women Empowerment in Selected Domains, which provided information on student enrollment in engineering, manufacturing, and construction. The overall proportion of women enrolled in these fields was between 37% and 40% from 2014 to 2016. Women’s representation differs by the type of…

Singapore Science and Engineering Career Expectations

Students were also surveyed in the 2018 PISA about their science and engineering career aspirations. While a higher proportion of male and female students from Singapore expect to have a science or engineering career by age 30 compared to the OECD average proportion of boys and girls, a gender difference is evident. Specifically, boys (26%) from Singapore are almost three times as likely to have these career expectations compared to girls (9%).

Singapore High School Preparation

The mathematics and science performance of 15-year-old students from Singapore was assessed in OECD’s 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) assessment. Both male and female students from Singapore, on average, outperformed their counterparts from OECD countries in both subjects. Yet, boys performed slightly better than girls on both math and science portions of the PISA.

Malaysia Science and Engineering Career Expectations

The 2018 PISA survey also included a portion where students were asked about their science and engineering career aspirations. A comparable proportion of both Malaysian boys and girls (18% and 6%, respectively) as the OECD average proportion of boys and girls (15% and 7%, respectively) expect to have a science or engineering career by age…

Malaysia High School Preparation

Fifteen-year-old students from Malaysia participated in OECD’s 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) assessment. In both mathematics and science, Malaysian students’ average scores were lower than the average scores of students belonging to OECD countries. However, for both math and science portions of the PISA, Malaysian girls’ average scores were higher than that of…

Mexico Science and Engineering Career Expectations

The 2018 PISA survey also included a portion where students were asked about their science and engineering career aspirations. A larger proportion of both Mexican boys and girls (30% and 10.7%, respectively) than the OECD average proportion of boys and girls (15.2% and 7.10%, respectively). Despite these promising career aspirations Mexican boys and girls have,…

Mexico High School Preparation

n OECD’s 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) assessment, 15-year-old students from Mexico participated. In both mathematics and science, Mexican students’ average scores were lower than the average scores of students belonging to OECD countries. For both math and science portions of the PISA, Mexican boys’ average scores were higher than that of their…

COVID-19 Research – India

In October 2020, SWE conducted a survey of engineers and engineering students in India to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic was impacting their college and career plans. We received over 300 responses. Below are highlights from our findings. Download the full report here. Impact of COVID-19 on College Students While most students indicated that they…

Brazil Scholarly Publications

Proportion and number of women researchers: In 2017, Elsevier analyzed the research output broken down by gender for different countries, including Brazil. The published report, Gender in the Global Research Landscape (2017) shows that overall, the number of researchers in Brazil has greatly increased from the period 1996-2000 to 2011-2015. Additionally, the proportion of women…

Brazil Science Career Expectations

Young adolescents from Brazil were surveyed about their science career expectations in the 2018 PISA survey, an international student assessment. For both boys and girls, a higher percentage of Brazilian students compared to the percentage of students from OECD countries have expectations to work as science and engineering professionals. Specifically, 10.2% of Brazilian girls compared…

Brazil High School Preparation

In the most recent OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) assessment conducted in 2018, 15-year-old students from Brazil participated. In both mathematics and science, Brazilian students’ average scores were lower than the average scores of students belonging to OECD countries. The average score of Brazilian boys was higher compared to the mean score of…

Global Graduate Degrees

The National Science Board’s Science and Engineering Indicators (2022) show that from 2000 to 2018, there has been an increase across several countries in the number of science and engineering doctoral degrees.

Global Career Expectations

Career expectations of boys and girls around the world show that gaps exist among young men and women on their plans to pursue a science or engineering career.

China Graduate Education

Since 2009, the number of engineering doctoral degrees awarded in China has been steady and under 20,000. Among postgraduate master’s participants, women were well represented, comprising about 52.2% of students enrolled and 52.4% of degree holders. Trend in Engineering Doctoral Degrees Awarded, 2000-2014 In 2017, women were underrepresented among incoming doctoral students (41.9%) and doctoral…

China Undergraduate Education

In 2014, China had the highest number of first university engineering degrees awarded with over 1.13 million. These engineering degrees represented about 33% of the total first university (bachelor’s or equivalent) degrees awarded in China. Trend in First University Engineering Degrees Awarded in China, 2000-2014 In the Education Statistics in 2017 published by the Ministry…

China Career Expectations

In the most recent PISA assessment (OECD, 2017), 15-year-old students from Macao, Hong Kong, and B-S-J-G regions were surveyed about their science career expectations. B-S-J-G (China) refers to the four PISA-participating municipalities/provinces in China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Guangdong. In all of these three groups, a lower percentage of girls compared to boys have expectations…

China High School Preparation

In the most recent OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) assessment conducted in 2015, 15-year-old students from two regions of China, Hong Kong and Macau, participated. In the mathematics portion, students’ average score from both regions was higher than the average score of students belonging to OECD countries. The average mathematics score of girls…

An Examination of Bias in the Engineering Workplace in India

In partnership with the Center for WorkLife Law at the University of California, Hastings College of Law, SWE explored bias reported by engineers in India. Almost 700 engineers completed a customized online survey developed to identify the existence of bias patterns in the engineering workplace. The results suggest that both men and women engineers in…

Canada Intention to Pursue an Engineering Career

A survey conducted by Engineers Canada (2016) found that men are more definitive about their intention to pursue a career in engineering compared to women. The most recent data of the 2017 graduating cohort (Engineers Canada, 2017) shows that the majority of students will definitely pursue a career in engineering. When the same group of…

Australia Income Equality

Income inequities exist in the engineering sector, with men earning much more than women. Almost 25% of male engineers earn at least $2,000 per week compared to only 10% of female engineers. Source: Engineers Australia. (2012). Women in engineering: A statistical update. Additional Resources Engineers Australia. (2012). Women in engineering: A statistical update. Data and…

Australia School to University Transition

SCHOOL TO UNIVERSITY TRANSITION: A 2019 report from Engineers Australia found that women continue to be underrepresented in the engineering profession. Australian women have the capacity to study engineering, but they do not choose to enroll in university engineering programs. From 2013 to 2017, about 2,000 young women apply for places in university engineering courses…

Global Degree Attainment

The OECD also reports that on average, among OECD countries, new entrants into the fields of engineering, manufacturing, and construction represented about 16% of all new entrants in tertiary education, which includes any post-secondary educational level except doctoral level. On average, among OECD countries, in 2015, women represented 24% of all new entrants in engineering,…

Global High School Preparation

The OECD (2019a) found that on average, across countries that are members of OECD, boys’ mean score in math was higher than girls’ mean score by about five points. Yet, in science, girls’ mean score in science was slightly higher than boys’ mean score by two points.