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Singapore Research Scientists and Engineers

In the latest National Survey of Research and Development in Singapore (2018) published by the Agency for Science, Technology, and Research in Singapore, the gender representation of research scientists and engineers were provided for the span of ten years (2008-2018). Over this time, women’s representation among research scientists and engineers has slowly increased. Women represented 26% of research scientists and engineers in 2008, and in 2018, their representation among these STEM workers increased to 30%.

Singapore Higher Education

Each year the Ministry of Education in Singapore publishes a report titled Education Statistics Digest, which provides information on gender representation of students admitted, enrolled, and graduated from engineering and engineering sciences across various higher education institutions in Singapore. Across the years of 2016 to 2019, the percentage of female students admitted to engineering and engineering sciences hovers around 22%. Similarly, about 22% of students who graduate from these fields are women in this time period.

Malaysia Engineering Professionals

Data from the last three annual reports created by the Board of Engineers Malaysia show that the majority of registered engineers across various levels tend to concentrate around three specific engineering disciplines: civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering. However, the majority of registered professional engineers and professional engineers with practicing certifications (highest level) are in civil…

Malaysia Higher Education

In 2017, the Department of Statistics in Malaysia published a report titled Statistics on Women Empowerment in Selected Domains, which provided information on student enrollment in engineering, manufacturing, and construction. The overall proportion of women enrolled in these fields was between 37% and 40% from 2014 to 2016. Women’s representation differs by the type of…

Singapore Science and Engineering Career Expectations

Students were also surveyed in the 2018 PISA about their science and engineering career aspirations. While a higher proportion of male and female students from Singapore expect to have a science or engineering career by age 30 compared to the OECD average proportion of boys and girls, a gender difference is evident. Specifically, boys (26%) from Singapore are almost three times as likely to have these career expectations compared to girls (9%).

Singapore High School Preparation

The mathematics and science performance of 15-year-old students from Singapore was assessed in OECD’s 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) assessment. Both male and female students from Singapore, on average, outperformed their counterparts from OECD countries in both subjects. Yet, boys performed slightly better than girls on both math and science portions of the PISA.

Malaysia Science and Engineering Career Expectations

The 2018 PISA survey also included a portion where students were asked about their science and engineering career aspirations. A comparable proportion of both Malaysian boys and girls (18% and 6%, respectively) as the OECD average proportion of boys and girls (15% and 7%, respectively) expect to have a science or engineering career by age…

Malaysia High School Preparation

Fifteen-year-old students from Malaysia participated in OECD’s 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) assessment. In both mathematics and science, Malaysian students’ average scores were lower than the average scores of students belonging to OECD countries. However, for both math and science portions of the PISA, Malaysian girls’ average scores were higher than that of…

Mexico STEM Workforce

STEM Professionals: Data from the fourth quarter of 2020 the National Jobs and Occupations Survey (ENOE) shows that while among certain STEM fields, engineering employed the most workers (over 2 million), the representation of women was the lowest in engineering. Less than 20% of employed professionals in engineering were women while 55% and 62% of…

Mexico Degree Attainment

Higher Education in Engineering, Manufacturing, and Construction: According to the National Association of Universities and Institutions of Higher Education (ANUIES, 2021), in the 2019-2020 academic year, the proportion of engineering, manufacturing, and construction students that were women seems to increase at each level of education. For instance, while 30.4% of admitted students and 30.5% of…

Mexico Science and Engineering Career Expectations

The 2018 PISA survey also included a portion where students were asked about their science and engineering career aspirations. A larger proportion of both Mexican boys and girls (30% and 10.7%, respectively) than the OECD average proportion of boys and girls (15.2% and 7.10%, respectively). Despite these promising career aspirations Mexican boys and girls have,…

Mexico High School Preparation

n OECD’s 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) assessment, 15-year-old students from Mexico participated. In both mathematics and science, Mexican students’ average scores were lower than the average scores of students belonging to OECD countries. For both math and science portions of the PISA, Mexican boys’ average scores were higher than that of their…

COVID-19 Research – India

In October 2020, SWE conducted a survey of engineers and engineering students in India to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic was impacting their college and career plans. We received over 300 responses. Below are highlights from our findings. Download the full report here. Impact of COVID-19 on College Students While most students indicated that they…

Global STEM Workforce

Global STEM R&D Researchers and Personnel In 2017, the percentage of female science and engineering researchers and personnel in research and development (R&D) across the world was about 30% according to a UNESCO brief report (UNESCO, 2020), which highlights a gender disparity in R&D labor force. Still, there are regions in the world where there…

Brazil Scholarly Publications

Proportion and number of women researchers: In 2017, Elsevier analyzed the research output broken down by gender for different countries, including Brazil. The published report, Gender in the Global Research Landscape (2017) shows that overall, the number of researchers in Brazil has greatly increased from the period 1996-2000 to 2011-2015. Additionally, the proportion of women…

Brazil Undergraduate Education

Overall, the number of students enrolled and graduating from undergraduate programs in Brazil has increased from 2017 to 2019. Women represent about 57% of students enrolled in undergraduate programs and about 60% of students who graduate from these programs. Within engineering (referred to in Brazil’s reports as “production and construction engineering”), the number of admitted…

Brazil Higher Education

According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, in 2016, women represented more than half of the Brazilian tertiary graduates across all levels of higher education. However, this percentage seems to lower as at each higher educational level, such that women represent about 61% of graduates at the Bachelor’s level while representing about 54%…

Brazil Science Career Expectations

Young adolescents from Brazil were surveyed about their science career expectations in the 2018 PISA survey, an international student assessment. For both boys and girls, a higher percentage of Brazilian students compared to the percentage of students from OECD countries have expectations to work as science and engineering professionals. Specifically, 10.2% of Brazilian girls compared…

Brazil High School Preparation

In the most recent OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) assessment conducted in 2018, 15-year-old students from Brazil participated. In both mathematics and science, Brazilian students’ average scores were lower than the average scores of students belonging to OECD countries. The average score of Brazilian boys was higher compared to the mean score of…

Global Graduate Degrees

The National Science Board’s Science and Engineering Indicators (2018) show that from 2000 to 2014, there has been an increase across several countries in the number of engineering doctoral degrees. Since 2003, China outperforms the rest of the selected countries in the number of engineering doctoral degrees that are awarded, with 18,537 engineering doctoral degrees…

Global Undergraduate Degrees

From 2000 to 2014, there has been a steady increase across several countries in the number of bachelor’s degrees or equivalent (termed “first university degrees” for international statistical comparisons) in engineering awarded as seen in the National Science Board’s Science and Engineering Indicators (2018). While in 2014, the United States awarded 119,498 engineering degrees, China…

Global Career Expectations

Career expectations of boys and girls around the world show that gaps exist among young men and women on their plans to pursue a science or engineering career.

India Faculty

The proportion of post-secondary faculty who were female in the 2018-2019 academic year varied by the academic position held. Women were more represented in the lower faculty ranks, such as assistant professors and lecturers in the 2017-18 and again in 2018-19 school years, where they represented about 41.9% and 42.6% of those faculty groups, respectively…

India Graduate Education

The enrollment numbers in doctoral engineering and technology disciplines for the 2018-2019 academic year are similar to those found in undergraduate engineering and technology disciplines. For example, women are still underrepresented among students enrolled in doctoral degrees in mechanical engineering, comprising only 9.4% of these participants. The category of other engineering and technology disciplines has…

India Undergraduate Education

In the 2017-18 academic year, colleges approved by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) enrolled 694,249 undergraduate students. Of those students, 29.7% were female. More recently, women represented 28.1% of participants in Bachelor of Engineering and Bachelor of Technology degree programs in the 2018-19 school year. Although mechanical engineering enrolls the highest number…

China Graduate Education

Since 2009, the number of engineering doctoral degrees awarded in China has been steady and under 20,000. Among postgraduate master’s participants, women were well represented, comprising about 52.2% of students enrolled and 52.4% of degree holders. Trend in Engineering Doctoral Degrees Awarded, 2000-2014 In 2017, women were underrepresented among incoming doctoral students (41.9%) and doctoral…

China Undergraduate Education

In 2014, China had the highest number of first university engineering degrees awarded with over 1.13 million. These engineering degrees represented about 33% of the total first university (bachelor’s or equivalent) degrees awarded in China. Trend in First University Engineering Degrees Awarded in China, 2000-2014 In the Education Statistics in 2017 published by the Ministry…

China Career Expectations

In the most recent PISA assessment (OECD, 2017), 15-year-old students from Macao, Hong Kong, and B-S-J-G regions were surveyed about their science career expectations. B-S-J-G (China) refers to the four PISA-participating municipalities/provinces in China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Guangdong. In all of these three groups, a lower percentage of girls compared to boys have expectations…

China High School Preparation

In the most recent OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) assessment conducted in 2015, 15-year-old students from two regions of China, Hong Kong and Macau, participated. In the mathematics portion, students’ average score from both regions was higher than the average score of students belonging to OECD countries. The average mathematics score of girls…

Australia Engineering Workforce

AUSTRALIA ENGINEERING WORKFORCE: Women are severely underrepresented in the engineering workforce. In 2016, only 12.4% women comprised the engineering labor force, which is more than a percentage decrease since 2015. Moreover, the probability of remaining in their occupation is lowest among engineering women, specifically in two age groups: 25 to 34 and 55 to 64.…

Australia High School Preparation

HIGH SCHOOL PREPARATION: A 2017 report from Engineers Australia found that participation in STEM subjects among year 12 students has been declining since 2001. Participation in advanced mathematics and physics, which are considered fundamental courses for preparing the country’s future engineers, has declined from 2001 to 2015, but participation is especially low among girls. Note:…

An Examination of Bias in the Engineering Workplace in India

In partnership with the Center for WorkLife Law at the University of California, Hastings College of Law, SWE explored bias reported by engineers in India. Almost 700 engineers completed a customized online survey developed to identify the existence of bias patterns in the engineering workplace. The results suggest that both men and women engineers in…

Canada Faculty

Over the span of 10 years, from 2008 to 2019, the proportion of female faculty members has been below 20%, with the exception of 2018 (20.8%). In 2019, the highest percentages of female faculty were observed in lower ranks of academia (e.g. instructors, lecturers, and assistant professors). Women represent 12% of full professors in engineering.…

Canada Intention to Pursue an Engineering Career

A survey conducted by Engineers Canada (2016) found that men are more definitive about their intention to pursue a career in engineering compared to women. The most recent data of the 2017 graduating cohort (Engineers Canada, 2017) shows that the majority of students will definitely pursue a career in engineering. When the same group of…

Canada Graduate Degrees

The proportion of master’s degrees awarded in engineering to females was 25.7% in 2019, while the proportion of doctoral degrees awarded to females was 23.4%. Among master’s degree holders in engineering, the highest representation of women are in the fields of biosystems and environmental engineering, where they comprise 44.9% and 42.5% of the graduates, respectively.…

Canada Undergraduate Degrees

The proportion of undergraduate engineering degrees awarded to females has been slowly increasing since 2010, surpassing 20% in 2017. In 2019, 22.1% of undergraduate degrees were awarded to women. Women were well-represented among the disciplines of biosystems and geological engineering, where they comprised 47.2% and 39.4%, respectively, of the undergraduate degree holders in those disciplines.…

Canada Undergraduate Enrollment

As undergraduate enrollment in engineering programs increases, so too does female undergraduate enrollment in engineering. In 2019, female undergraduate enrollment was 23.4%, surpassing the 20% mark for the fourth year in a row. Biosystems and environmental engineering have the highest proportion (50.2%) of female students, while civil (3,310) and mechanical (3,093) engineering have the highest…

United Kingdom Engineering Workforce

EngineeringUK found that in 2018, while women represent 47% of the total UK workforce, only 9.7% of the engineering occupations within the engineering workforce in the United Kingdom were held by women. UK workforce, by gender and sector, 2018 Source: EngineeringUK. (2019). Excel Resource 2019, EngineeringUK 2018: The state of engineering. In 2016-17, among those…

United Kingdom Degree Attainment

While the proportion of women pursuing a higher education degree has increased from 40% in 1980 to 56% in 2017, 83% of undergraduates in engineering and technology and 83% of undergraduates in computer science programs are men (WES, 2018). Though the number of first degrees awarded in engineering to women has increased over the last…

United Kingdom Intentions to Major in Engineering

ENGINEERING CAREER EXPECTATIONS: The trend of young people who would consider a career in engineering seems to indicate an overall positive trend among all age groups from 2013 to 2017. Over the selected years, the proportion of students in middle adolescence (ages 14-16) who would consider an engineering career fluctuated more than the proportion of…

United Kingdom High School Preparation

The Women’s Engineering Society, a professional organization for women engineers, scientists, and technologists in the United Kingdom, updated a report in 2018 on the state of women in engineering. They found that there has been a slight increase in the representation of women in the engineering workforce in the UK, from 9% in 2015 to…

Australia Income Equality

Income inequities exist in the engineering sector, with men earning much more than women. Almost 25% of male engineers earn at least $2,000 per week compared to only 10% of female engineers. Source: Engineers Australia. (2012). Women in engineering: A statistical update. Additional Resources Engineers Australia. (2012). Women in engineering: A statistical update. Data and…

Australia Degree Attainment

DEGREE ATTAINMENT: Engineers Australia studied the trends of women’s shares of bachelor’s degree completions by degree duration (3 year, 4 year, and double degrees) from 2001 to 2017. In 2017, women received 16.5% of three-year bachelor’s degrees in engineering and 13.6% of four-year bachelor’s degrees in engineering. The fields of maritime engineering and technology, automotive…

Australia School to University Transition

SCHOOL TO UNIVERSITY TRANSITION: A 2019 report from Engineers Australia found that women continue to be underrepresented in the engineering profession. Australian women have the capacity to study engineering, but they do not choose to enroll in university engineering programs. From 2013 to 2017, about 2,000 young women apply for places in university engineering courses…

Global Degree Attainment

The OECD also reports that on average, among OECD countries, new entrants into the fields of engineering, manufacturing, and construction represented about 16% of all new entrants in tertiary education, which includes any post-secondary educational level except doctoral level. On average, among OECD countries, in 2015, women represented 24% of all new entrants in engineering,…

Global High School Preparation

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) studies gender equality in the areas of education, employment, and entrepreneurship. The OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an international assessment that evaluates educational systems of countries all over the world. The PISA assessments and surveys occur once every three years and are meant to…